The shoulder is one of the largest and most complex joints in the body. The shoulder joint is formed where the humerus (upper arm bone) fits into the scapula (shoulder blade), like a ball-and-socket. Some of the common problems include:


    Also known as 'adhesive capsulitis', it is a very painful, continual stiffness of the shoulder joint which creates a difficulty in performing daily activities. It occurs when the tissue surrounding the joint thickens, swells and tightens leading to stiffness.


    It occurs when one of the bones slips out of position when pulled or twisted.


    It is due to tendinitis (inflammation of a tendon), bursitis (inflammation of bursa) and tears (of muscle and tendon). Sports with repeated overhead motion can also damage the rotator cuff.


Acromioplasty and Decompression: An acromioplasty is a keyhole surgery which involves reshaping the under surface of the acromion to decompress the rotator cuff tendons below. This allows the tendons to move freely under the acromion and prevent the painful catching of the tendon. The inflamed bursal tissue will also be removed.

Excision AC Joint:This is an arthroscopic operation in which the inflamed tissue between the bones is removed and a centimetre of bone from the end of the collarbone is removed. The stabilising capsule of the joint and stabilising ligaments around the joint are left intact and there is no loss of strength in the shoulder. The gap is filled with scar tissue and a centimetre is taken so that no matter what position the shoulder is placed in, in future, the two bones will not rub against each other.

Arthroscopic Stabilisation:Stabilisation is an operation in which any of the injured structures in the shoulder joint are repaired back to bone and the joint which is stretched is tightened back to normal tension. In a vast majority of the cases this is performed arthroscopically, but in a few cases an open operation is necessary if there has been a fracture of the bones of the shoulder joint or if there is bone missing. The type of surgery necessary will be determined by appropriate investigations preoperatively.

Rotator Cuff Repair:Involves reattaching the torn rotator cuff tendons back onto the bone. This is done by placing anchors with suture material into the bone and stitching the suture through the tendon, and tying the tendon down onto the bone. The repair of the tendon is done either through a small keyhole incision or is performed arthroscopically. At the same time, an Acromioplasty will be performed to remove all the inflamed tissue, and reshape the under surface of the acromion.

Latarjet (Open Stabilisation):This is an open operation, and not a keyhole surgery. It involves a piece of bone being removed from the coracoid process, and transplanted to the glenoid to replace the bone that is deficient. The bone block is fixed to the glenoid with a metal screw.